The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected daily activities and travel behavior worldwide. Among others, unemployment rates have pushed millions of families into food insecurity, and the social distancing requirement and fear of contracting COVID-19 have changed the way that people access food with many people replacing in-store visits with online food shopping. This study examines food access under the challenges brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. Research has been conducted to study the food shopping behavior during COVID-19, including panic buying, changes in diet habits and food shopping methods. However, they paid limited attention to the travel associated with food shopping. In this study, we present the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on food access and how the impact changes in different areas/regions.
We examine food shopping visits to grocery stores in six large metropolitan areas: New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Dallas, Phoenix and Seattle. The grocery stores in these areas were grouped into 5 categories, including supermarkets, large retailers, specialty stores, warehouse clubs and convenience stores (Table 1). Figure 1 shows the number of grocery stores in each metropolitan area. In these metropolitan areas, New York City has the most number of grocery stores (9,016) and Phoenix has the least number of grocery stores (1,682). Among all the stores, Figure 2 shows that convenience stores account for the largest proportion in each metropolitan area, followed by supermarkets.
Figure 1. Number of Grocery Stores in Six Metropolitan Areas
Figure 2. Grocery Stores in Six Metropolitan Areas
The grocery store visit flows before (April and May in 2019) and during COVID-19 (April and May in 2020) are compared based on the data provided by SafeGraph. The visit flows are estimated on a sample of mobile phone users (16 years old or above), but not on the entire population. The sample accounts for about 10% of the entire population in the U.S. with the sampling ratio varying from area to area. We calibrate the total visits based on the total population (16 years old or above) and the number of devices used in each data collection unit (e.g., census block groups).
Figure 3 shows the temporal changes of the total grocery store visits in the six metropolitan areas. Overall, residents in LA had the most grocery store visits, followed by New York City. Overall, we noticed a different store visit patterns in the six metropolitan areas. Compared to April 2019, in April 2020 during the very initial stage of COVID-19 LA had a decreased amount of grocery store visits (e.g., LA) while a few other metropolitan areas (e.g., Dallas) experienced an increase amount of store visits. Figure 4 presents the temporal variation of visits to different types of grocery stores. The figure suggests that in April 2019, people have reduced visits to convenience stores and specialty food stores while having increased visits to large retailers, supermarkets and warehouse clubs.
Figure 3. Grocery Store Visits
Figure 4. Temporal Variation of Visits to Different Types of Stores
As for the average travel distance (Figure 5), on average people in Los Angeles had the shortest travel distance to grocery stores, while residents in Dallas had the longest travel distance. Figure 5 shows that in all the six metropolitan areas, travel distances during COVID-19 are shorter than those before COVID-19. We also notice that people in these six metropolitan areas tended to use grocery stores closer to their home than the other three months. Figure 6 shows the travel distance to different types of grocery stores. Overall, the convenience stores and warehouse clubs people used are farther from their homes. Compared to other types of grocery stores, the travel distance to warehouse clubs had minimal changes during the initial stage of COVID-19.
Figure 5. Average Weighted Distance from Home to Grocery Store (km)
Figure 6. Average Weighted Distance from Home to Different Types of Grocery Stores (km)
The purpose of this website, https://cybergisxhub.cigi.illinois.edu/
is to provide information to You related to “CyberGISX Project” (“Project”). This Project aims to enable open access and sharing of computation- and data-intensive geospatial analytics, under Apache 2.0 license agreement.
The initial version of the Project (“Original Project”), was developed by the CyberGIS Center for Advanced Digital and Spatial Studies (CyberGIS Center) and is solely owned by The Board of Trustees of the Illinois of Illinois.
The Site and its content is made available by the Board of Trustees of the Illinois of Illinois (“Illinois”, “we”, “our”, “us”), on behalf of the CyberGIS Center. The Site is owned by the Illinois.
or otherwise accessing the Site. Please read these Terms carefully. The Terms govern Your use of the Site and any incorporated content (such as Illinois or third party software, text, data, information, or graphics) made available through the Site.
By continuing to use this site, You accept these Terms. If You are not willing to be bound by these Terms, please stop using this Site.
1. Governing Terms:
The Terms are governed by Illinois’s web privacy notices and policy links presented here:
You hereby accept that all intellectual property, including copyrights, and other proprietary rights in or related to Original Project and Site are, and will remain, the exclusive property of Illinois, whether or not specifically recognized or perfected under applicable law. As End User, You will not take any action that jeopardizes Illinois’s proprietary rights.
3. Credit and Attribution.
You agree to credit and attribute the authors and creators of Project that You use with the copyright notice or statement of credit/attribution as customarily acceptable in industry.
In no event shall Illinois or its employees be liable for any damages (including, without limitation, damages for loss of data or profit, or due to business interruption) arising out of the use or inability to use the content on Site, even if Illinois or a Illinois authorized representative has been notified orally or in writing of the possibility of such damage. Because some jurisdictions do not allow limitations on implied warranties, or limitations of liability for consequential or incidental damages, these limitations may not apply to you.
5. Modification of Site and Terms.
Illinois reserves the right to modify the Site and may discontinue, temporarily or permanently, the Site for any reason, at its sole discretion, with or without notice to You. Illinois may likewise change the Terms from time to time with or without notice to you. You agree to review the Terms periodically to ensure that you are aware of any modifications. Your continued access to the Site after the modifications have become effective shall be deemed your conclusive acceptance of the modified Terms.
If you violate or fail to comply with any of these Terms or in Illinois’ sole discretion restrict or inhibit any other user from using or enjoying the Site, Illinois may terminate your access to the Site account without notice to You.
CyberGISX Project Contributor License Agreement
Version 1.0 February 9, 2021
Thank you for your interest in contributing to the CyberGISX Project. In order to contribute, you will need to provide your name and contact information and sign this CyberGISX Project Contributor License Agreement, which sets the terms and conditions of the intellectual property license granted with your contributions.
This CyberGISX Project Contributor License Agreement (“Agreement”) is by and between you, any person or entity (“You” or “Your”) and the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois, a body corporate and politic of the State of Illinois (“Illinois”). Please read this document carefully before signing and keep a copy for your records. By signing this Agreement or making a “Contribution” to the “CyberGISX Project” as defined below (even if You do not sign), You agree to the following:
1. “CyberGISX Project” is an open-source software project that aims to enable open access and sharing of computation- and data-intensive geospatial analytics with computational reproducibility and transparency support available under Apache 2.0 license agreement: https://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
2. “Contribution” means all of Your contributions of object code, source code, content, and documentation, and any modifications thereof, to the CyberGISX Project.
3. “Licensed Patents” mean patent claims licensable by You which are necessarily infringed by the making, using, selling, offering for sale, having made, import, or transfer of either Your Contribution alone or when combined with the CyberGISX Project.
4. “Representation.” You represent the following to the best of your knowledge:
a. You are at least 18 years of age and have full power and authority to enter into this Agreement and to grant the rights in and to the Contribution as set forth herein (individuals who are under 18 years of age and who wish to contribute to the CyberGISX project may not enter into this Agreement, but may contact CyberGISX at email@example.com to explore alternatives);
b. If your employer has rights to intellectual property that You create as part of the Contribution, You represent that You have obtained permission from Your employer to make the Contribution on behalf of that employer, or Your employer waived any rights in and to Your Contribution, or Your employer authorizes the Contribution and agrees to be bound by the terms herein by signing as an entity below;
c. That either:
1. all documentation and code in the Contribution is Your original work and includes complete details of any third-party license and any other restriction (including, but not limited to related patents and trademarks) of which You are personally aware and which are associated with any part of Your Contributions; or
2. any part of the Contribution that is not Your original creation is submitted to CyberGISX separately from any original Contribution, includes the complete details of its source and any corresponding license and any other restriction (including, but not limited to related patents, trademarks, and license agreements) of which You are personally aware, and is conspicuously marked as "Submitted on behalf of a third party: [named here]".
d. That Your Contribution does not include any viruses, worms, Trojan horses, malicious code or other harmful or destructive content;
e. The CyberGISX Project delivered under this Agreement may be subject to U.S. export control laws and may be subject to export or import regulations in other countries. You agree to comply strictly with all such laws and regulations and acknowledge that You have the responsibility, at Your own expense, to obtain such licenses to export, re-export, or import as may be required; and
f. Your Contribution does not include any encryption technology and no government license or permission is required for the export, import, transfer or use of the Contribution.
5. Notification. Your representations are accurate, and You agree to notify Illinois of any facts or circumstances of which You become aware that would make any of Your representations inaccurate in any respect.
6. License grant to Contributions. You grant to Illinois and to recipients of the CyberGISX software (collectively, “Recipients”), a perpetual, irrevocable, non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free unrestricted license to use, reproduce, prepare derivative works of, publicly display, publicly perform, distribute, and sublicense the Contribution, and such derivative works, in source code and object code forms.
7. License grant to Patents.
8. No support. Except for the rights granted to Recipients above, You reserve all right, title, and interest in and to Your Contribution. You are not expected to provide support for your Contributions.
9. No Warranties. Subject to Your representations above, Your Contributions are provided on an “AS-IS” basis WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND (express or implied), including, without limitation, any implied warranty of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, and any warranty of non-infringement.
10. No Liability. Illinois, its trustees, directors, officers, employees, students, and agents have no liability for any infringement of any copyright, patent, or other right of third parties in connection with any Contributions, the CyberGISX Project, or CyberGISX software, and are not liable for any direct, indirect, punitive, special, incidental, consequential, or exemplary damages arising in connection with any Contribution, the CyberGISX Project, or CyberGISX software.
11. Indemnity. You agree to indemnify, defend, and hold Illinois and its subsidiaries, affiliates, officers, agents, employees, partners, licensees, and licensors harmless from any claim or demand, including but not limited to reasonable attorneys’ fees, made by any third party due to or arising out of Contributions You submit, post, transmit or otherwise make available through the CyberGISX Project, as well as Your use of the CyberGISX software; connection to the CyberGISX Project; or violation of any rights of another.
12. You agree that Illinois may assign this Agreement and CyberGISX Project to any third party without notice or consent.
13. Illinois is under no obligation to accept or include Your Contribution to the CyberGISX Project.
14. This Agreement is governed by the laws of the State of Illinois, excluding its conflict of laws provisions.